The effective screening medium (ESM) method is a firstprinciples computational method for charged or biased systems consisting of a slab [125,126,127,128]. In this method, a 2dimensional periodic and 1dimensional optional boundary conditions are imposed on a model cell (Fig. 52(a)), and the Poisson's equation is solved under those set of boundary conditions by using the Green's function method. An isolated slab, charged slab, and a slab under a uniform electric field can be treated by introducing the following combinations of semiinfinite media (ESMs).

ESM.switch on3 # off, on1=vvv, on2=mvm, on3=vvm, on4=on2+EF ESM.buffer.range 4.5 # default=10.0 (ang),where on1, on2, on3, and on4 represent combinations of ESMs, 'vacuum + vacuum', 'ideal metal + ideal metal', 'vacuum + ideal metal', and 'ideal metal + ideal metal under an electric field', respectively. The keyword 'ESM.buffer.range' indicates the width of an exclusive region for atoms with ESM (unit is Å), which is necessary in order to prevent overlaps between wave functions and ESM.
Both ESM (I) and (II) are semiinfinite vacuum media. In this case, note that the total charge of a calculation system should be neutral. The keyword 'scf.system.charge' should be set to zero.
Both ESM (I) and (II) are semiinfinite idealmetal media. One can deal with charged systems. The keyword 'scf.system.charge' can be set to a finite value.
ESM (I) and (II) are a semiinfinite vacuum and ideal metal medium, respectively. One can deal with charged systems. The keyword 'scf.system.charge' can be set to be a finite value.
An electric field is imposed on the system with the same combination of ESMs to 'on2'. By using the following keyword, one can impose a uniform electric field on a calculation system;
ESM.potential.diff 1.0 # default=0.0 (eV),where you can specify a potential difference between two semiinfinite idealmetal media with reference to the bottom ideal metal (unit is eV). The electric filed is determined by the length of the cell, a, and the potential difference.
One can perform MD calculations of solid surfaceliquid interface systems with any combinations of ESMs. A surfacemodel slab and a liquid region should be located as shown in Fig. 52(b). In order to restrict liquid molecules within a given region, an cubic barrier potential can be introduced by using the following keyword (see Fig. 52(b)):
ESM.wall.position 6.0 # default=10.0 (ang) ESM.wall.height 100.0 # default=100.0 (eV),
where 'ESM.wall.position' denotes the distance between the upper edge of the cell and the origin of the barrier potential, , and 'ESM.wall.height' is the height of the potential (value of potential energy) at (Å). It is also recommended to fix positions of atoms on the bottom of a surfacemodel slab during the MD run.
As shown in Fig. 52(a), we assume in the manual that the treatment by the ESM method is applied to the axis. However, the choice of the axis to be treated by ESM method can be changed by the keyword 'ESM.direction' as
ESM.direction x # xyz, default=xThe default direction is the axis as shown in Fig. 52(a).